We are less aware that lifetime health problems you may have or occur in future due to your genes and your strengths which you are gifted by your parents.Avastu Genetics help you to recognise them and also help you to cure your genetic health problems through counselling, diet and nutrition’s. It is a onetime Investment Program includes 105 Phenotypes tests which will guide to identify your Generic Strength and protect you from your Genetics Problem throughout your life.
A key player in the loss of Dopaminergic neurons is oxidative stress. Dopamine (DA) metabolism itself is strongly linked to oxidative stress as its degradation generates reactive oxygen species (ROS) and DA oxidation can lead to endogenous neurotoxins whereas some DA derivatives show antioxidative effects.
Dopamine problems are implicated in ADHD, Alzheimer's, Parkinson's, depression, bipolar disorders, binge eating, addiction, gambling, and schizophrenia. Having too much dopamine in the wrong place can make you psychotic.Therefore high amounts of dopamine can cause euphoria, aggression and intense sexual feelings.
Parkinson's disease is an age-related disorder characterized by movement disorders such as stiffness of the body, slowing of movement, and trembling of limbs when they are not in use. In advanced stages it progresses to dementia and eventually death. The main symptoms are caused by the loss of dopamine-secreting cells in the substantia nigra. These dopamine cells are especially vulnerable to damage and a variety of insults, including encephalitis (as depicted in the book and movie "Awakenings"), repeated sports-related concussions and some forms of chemical poisoning such as MPTP, can lead to substantial cell loss, producing a parkinsonian syndrome that is similar in its main features to Parkinson's disease. Most cases of Parkinson's disease, however, are idiopathic, means that the cause of cell death cannot be identified.
Most cases of depression (around 50%) are genetic, and around 50% is not related to genes (they are psychological or physical factors). Or it could said that in some cases the tendency to become depressed is almost completely genetic and in other cases it is not related to genes.
Some diseases are caused by a single defective gene. Cystic fibrosis, several kinds of muscular dystrophy and Huntington’s disease are examples. These are usually rare diseases. But many common disorders like depression, diabetes and high blood pressure are also influenced by genes. In these disorders, there seem to be combinations of genetic changes that predispose some people to become ill. We don’t yet know how many genes are involved in depression, but it is very doubtful that any one gene causes depression in any large number of people.
1. Genetics: A history of depression in your family may make it more likely for you to get it. It's thought that the condition can be passed down. The exact way this happens, though, isn't clear.
2. Death or loss: Sadness and grief are normal reactions. Sometimes, though, such big stresses can bring serious symptoms of depression, like thoughts of suicide or feelings of worthlessness.
3. Conflict: Personal turmoil or disputes with family or friends may lead to depression.
4. Abuse: Past physical, sexual, or emotional abuse can bring it on, as well.
5. Life events: Even good things, like moving or graduating, could make you depressed. Other changes that can do that include:
a. A new job
b. Loss of employment or income
c. Marriage, Divorce
6. Other illnesses: Sometimes depression pairs with, or can be a reaction to, another illness. Examples include:
a. Sleep problems
b. Chronic pain
7. Medications: Depression can be a side effect of something you take for another condition. If this happens to you, talk with your doctor about changing what you take.
8. Substance abuse: Nearly 30% of people who abuse drugs or alcohol have depression, too. Some people misuse substances when they feel down. For others, heavy use of alcohol or drugs can bring on depression symptoms.
9. Other problems. Things like social isolation due to another illness or separation from a family or social group can lead to depression.
1. Depressive mood present continuously for a minimum 2-week period prevalent every day and a larger part of the day.
2. Pronounced elevated emotional psychomotor activity in children and teenagers
3. Diminished ability to feel pleasure and rejoice.
4. Loss or gain of weight against a marked appetite alteration
5. Sleep disturbances: insomnia at night and daytime sleepiness
6. Objectively registered psychomotor agitation or motor retardation
7. Feeling of weakness, loss of energy, marked fatigue even after minimal effort
8. Lowered self-esteem and feeling of worthlessness, loss of self-confidence, ungrounded self-accusation to the extent of delirium
9. Diminished ability to think or concentrate, mental slowness, lack of resolution
10. Thoughts or actions leading to self-injurious or suicidal ideation.
Experiencing occasional anxiety is a normal part of life. However, people with anxiety disorders frequently have intense, excessive and persistent worry and fear about everyday situations. Often, anxiety disorders involve repeated episodes of sudden feelings of intense anxiety and fear or terror that reach a peak within minutes (panic attacks).
These feelings of anxiety and panic interfere with daily activities, are difficult to control, are out of proportion to the actual danger and can last a long time. You may avoid places or situations to prevent these feelings. Symptoms may start during childhood or the teen years and continue into adulthood.
Several types of anxiety disorders exist:
1. Agoraphobia (ag-uh-ruh-FOE-be-uh)
2. Anxiety disorder due to a medical condition
3. Generalized anxiety disorder
4. Panic disorder
5. Selective mutism
6. Separation anxiety disorder
7. Social anxiety disorder (social phobia)
8. Specific phobias
9. Substance-induced anxiety disorder
10. Other specified anxiety disorder and unspecified anxiety disorder
Common anxiety signs and symptoms include:
1. Feeling nervous, restless or tense
2. Having a sense of impending danger, panic or doom
3. Having an increased heart rate
4. Breathing rapidly (hyperventilation)
7. Feeling weak or tired
8. Trouble concentrating or thinking about anything other than the present worry
9. Having trouble sleeping
10. Experiencing gastrointestinal (GI) problems
11. Having difficulty controlling worry
12. Having the urge to avoid things that trigger anxiety
Risk factors for developing GAD include:
1. Sex: Women are diagnosed with GAD twice as often as men. Reasons for this include hormonal factors, cultural expectations, and more willingness to visit doctors and talk about their anxiety.
2. Family History: Anxiety disorders tend to run in families. This may be due to family dynamics such as the failure to learn effective coping skills, overprotective behaviours, abuse, and violence.
3. Genetic Factor: Approximately one-fourth of first-degree relatives will be affected.
4. Substance Abuse: Smoking, alcohol, and drug use can increase the risk of GAD.
5. Medical Conditions: People with chronic illnesses have a greater risk of GAD.
6. Socioeconomic and Ethnic Factors: Members of poor minority groups, particularly immigrants, tend to be at greater risk for developing GAD. This may be due to problems adjusting to a new culture, feelings of inferiority, alienation, and loss of strong family ties.
7. Depression: Generalized anxiety disorder often occurs with depression, particularly major depression or chronic mild depression. Adolescents with depression seem particularly at risk for developing GAD in adulthood.
8. Cultural Factors: Anxiety rates among children and adolescents have increased significantly since the 1950s. Two studies suggested that anxiety was related to lack of social connections and a sense of increased environmental threat.
9. Stressful Events in Susceptible People: The initial appearance of GAD often follows a highly stressful event, such as the loss of a loved one, the loss of an important relationship, the loss of a job, or being the victim of a crime.
10. History of Self-Harm: Adolescents who engage in self-harm by age 16 (with or without intent of suicide) are at a higher risk for a diagnosis of anxiety by young adulthood. Those with suicidal intent had a higher risk than those who did not.
Examples of medical problems that can be linked to anxiety include:
Examples of medical problems that can be linked to anxiety include:
1. Heart disease
3. Thyroid problems, such as hyperthyroidism
4. Respiratory disorders, such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and asthma
5. Drug misuse or withdrawal
6. Withdrawal from alcohol, anti-anxiety medications (benzodiazepines) or other medications
7. Chronic pain or irritable bowel syndrome
8. Rare tumours that produce certain fight-or-flight hormones
Food addicts become dependent upon the “good” feelings that are obtained from consuming certain foods, which often perpetuates a continued need to eat, even when not hungry. These behaviours generate a vicious cycle. As the food addict continues to gorge upon foods that induce pleasurable feelings, they often overindulge and eat beyond what is required for satiety and normal nutrition.
This can lead to several physicals, emotional, and social consequences, such as digestive issues, heart disease, obesity, low-self esteem, depression, and isolation. A food addict will often re-engage in these destructive behaviours, even amidst undesired consequences, due to the need for induced feelings of pleasure.
Causes of Food Addiction:
1. Food addiction is likely the culmination of several factors that interplay in the overall cause of this disorder. A man or woman may develop an addiction as a result of biological, psychological, or social reasons. Biological causes that may influence the progression of this eating disorder might include hormonal imbalances, abnormalities in various brain structures, side effects from the use of certain medications, or having family members with this type of addiction issues.
2. It also might also be the result of psychological factors. Factors included in this category might include emotional or sexual abuse, being a victim or survivor of a traumatic event, having an inability to healthily cope with negative situations, chronic low-self esteem, or experiencing grief or loss.
3. Psychological factors such as these can influence an individual to use food as a coping mechanism to relieve the painful emotions that may have resulted. Lastly, there are social implications that may be involved with food addiction, including factors such as disturbances in family function, pressure from peers or society, social isolation, child abuse, lack of social support, and stressful life events.
Signs and Symptoms:
1. Gorging in more food than one can physically tolerate
2. Eating to the point of feeling ill
3. Going out of your way to obtain certain foods
4. Continuing to eat certain foods even if no longer hungry
5. Eating in secret, isolation
6. Avoiding social interactions, relationships, or functions to spend time eating certain foods.
7. Difficulty function in a career or job due to decreased efficiency
8. Spending significant amount of money on buying certain foods for bingeing purposes
9. Decreased energy, chronic fatigue
10. Sleep disorders, such as insomnia or oversleeping
14. Digestive disorders
15. Suicidal ideations
Eating disorders are serious conditions related to persistent eating behaviours that negatively impact your health, your emotions and your ability to function in important areas of life. The most common eating disorders are anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa and binge-eating disorder.
Most eating disorders involve focusing too much on your weight, body shape and food, leading to dangerous eating behaviours. These behaviours can significantly impact your body's ability to get appropriate nutrition. Eating disorders can harm the heart, digestive system, bones, and teeth and mouth, and lead to other diseases.
Causes of Food Addiction
Food addiction is often developed due to the result of various factors that include biological, psychological, or social reasons. Biological causes can consist of hormonal imbalances, brain chemistry abnormalities, medication side effects or an inherent disposition resulting from family members struggling with food addictions.
Some psychological factors may include emotional, physical or sexual abuse, experiencing a traumatic event, unable to effectively handle negative situations, persistent low self-worth, or dealing with grief or loss. These mental issues can lead a person to turn to food for comfort or to numb emotional pain.
Dysfunctional family problems, peer pressure, child abuse and stressful life events are a few social factors that can lead to a food addiction. Food addiction can also co-occur with other disorders such as depression, eating disorders or substance abuse.
It is recommended that professional assistance be sought to learn how successfully to manage this disorder.
Signs and Symptoms of Food Addiction
When someone has developed a food addiction, individual will present numerous signs and symptoms that can be recognized. If you or someone you care for is experiencing any of these signs of food addiction, then find professional treatment immediately.
The following are potential indications of a food addiction:
1. Significant weight gain
2. Eating more food than can physically tolerate
3. Continuing to eat even if not hungry
4. Eating in secret, seclusion
5. Heart problems
6. Going out of your way to obtain certain foods
7. Decreased energy, chronic fatigue
8. Difficulty concentrating
9. Sleep disorders, such as insomnia or oversleeping
13. Digestive disorders
14. Eating to the point of feeling ill
15. Suicidal ideations
Food Addiction Effects
The repercussions a food addiction may have on various facets of your life can be overwhelming. A food addiction, if left untreated, can quickly begin consuming and ruining your life and health. Knowing how a food addiction can change and destroy your existence may help other to seek the assistance needed to begin living a healthy lifestyle again.
If you or someone you care for is struggling with food and overeating, then ask for help. The following are some of the effects of food addiction:
Negative Physical Effects:
1. Unhealthy weight gain
2. Reduced sex drive
7. Chronic fatigue
8. Heart disease
9. Kidney/Liver Disease
10. Chronic pain
11. Digestive Problems
12. Sleep disorders
Unwanted Psychological Effects:
2. Increased feelings of anxiety
3. Low self-esteem
4. Emotional detachment or numbness
5. Panic attacks
6. Feeling sad, hopeless, or in despair
7. Increased irritability
8. Suicidal ideation
Undesired Social Consequences:
1. Poor work or school performance
2. Becomes reclusive
3. Division within family units
4. No longer enjoys hobbies or activities
5. Avoidance of social events or functions
6. Jeopardized finances or career
Chronic disease in which a person craves for drinks that contain alcohol and is unable to control his or her craving. Person with this disease also needs to drink greater amounts to get the same effect and has withdrawal symptoms after stopping alcohol use. Alcoholism affects physical and mental health, and can cause problems with family, friends, and work.
• A disorder characterized by a pathological pattern of alcohol use that causes a serious impairment in social or occupational functioning.
• A primary, chronic disease with genetic, psychosocial, and environmental factors influencing its development and manifestations. The disease is often progressive and fatal. It is characterized by impaired control over drinking, preoccupation with the drug alcohol, use of alcohol despite adverse consequences, and distortions in thinking, most notably denial. Each of these symptoms may be continuous or periodic.
• For most adults, moderate alcohol use is probably not harmful. However, about 18 million adult Americans are alcoholics or have alcohol problems. Alcoholism is a disease with four main features:
a) Craving – a strong need to drink
b) Loss of control – not being able to stop drinking once you've started
c) Physical dependence – withdrawal symptoms, such as nausea, sweating, or shakiness when you don't drink
d) Tolerance – the need to drink greater amounts of alcohol to feel the same effect
Temporary mental disturbance marked by muscle in coordination and paresis as the result of excessive alcohol ingestion.
• Addiction towards drugs: - Drug addiction, also called substance use disorder, is a disease that affects a person's brain and behaviour and leads to an inability to control the use of a legal or illegal drug or medication. Substances such as alcohol, marijuana and nicotine also are considered drugs. When you're addicted, you may continue using the drug despite the harm it causes.
When you’re addicted to drugs, you can’t resist the urge to use them, no matter how much harm the drugs may cause.
Drug addiction isn’t about just heroin, cocaine, or other illegal drugs. You can get addicted to alcohol, nicotine, opioid painkillers, and other legal substances.
First, you may choose to take a drug because you like the way it makes you feel. You may think you can control how much and how often you use it. But over time, drugs change how your brain works. These physical changes can last a long time. They make you lose self-control and can lead you to damaging behaviours.
Addiction vs. Abuse
Drug abuse is when you use legal or illegal substances in ways you shouldn’t. You might take more than the regular dose of pills or use someone else’s prescription. You may abuse drugs to feel good, ease stress, or avoid reality. But usually, you’re able to change your unhealthy habits or stop using altogether.
Addiction is when you can’t stop. Not when it puts your health in danger. Not when it causes financial, emotional, and other problems for you or your loved ones. That urge to get and use drugs can fill up every minute of the day, even if you want to quit.
Effect on Your Brain
Your brain is wired to make you want to repeat experiences that make you feel good. So you’re motivated to do them again and again.
The drugs that may be addictive target your brain’s reward system. They flood your brain with a chemical called dopamine. This triggers a feeling of intense pleasure. So you keep taking the drug to chase that high.
Not everyone who uses drugs becomes addicted. But it can happen to anyone and at any age. Some things may raise your chances of addiction, including:
1. Family history:- Your genes are responsible for about half of your odds. If your parents or siblings have problems with alcohol or drugs, you’re more likely as well. Women and men are equally likely to become addicted.
2. Early drug use:- Children’s brains are still growing and drug use can change that. So taking drugs at an early age may make you more likely to get addicted when you get older.
3. Mental disorders:- If you’re depressed, have trouble paying attention, or worry constantly, you have a higher chance of addiction. You may turn to drugs as a way to try to feel better.
4. Troubled relationships:- If you grew up with family troubles and aren’t close to your parents or siblings, it may raise your chances of addiction.
Signs of Addiction
• You may have one or more of these warning signs:
• An urge to use the drug every day, or many times a day.
• You take more drugs than you want to, and for longer than you thought you would.
• You always have the drug with you, and you buy it even if you can’t afford it.
• You keep using drugs even if it causes you trouble at work or makes you lash out at family and friends.
• You spend more time alone.
• You don’t take care of yourself or care how you look.
• You steal, lie, or do dangerous things like driving while high or have unsafe sex.
• You spend most of your time getting, using, or recovering from the effects of the drug.
• You feel sick when you try to quit.
Nicotine is the drug in tobacco that causes dependence. Nicotine addiction or dependence, is the most common form of chemical dependency in the nation. Research has suggested that nicotine is equally as addictive as heroin, cocaine, and alcohol.
Nicotine dependence occurs when you need nicotine and can't stop using it. Nicotine is the chemical in tobacco that makes it hard to quit. Nicotine produces pleasing effects in your brain, but these effects are temporary. So you reach for another cigarette.
The more you smoke the more nicotine you need to feel good. When you try to stop, you experience unpleasant mental and physical changes. Every smoker is addicted to a different combination of the “stimulants” in cigarettes, making their personal experience with smoking and nicotine dependence unique. A stimulant is the addictive property in a cigarette that makes you crave more.
Physical Effects of Nicotine
When you first start smoking you may experience nausea, dizziness, headache, or upset stomach, but over time, as your smoking becomes more of a habit, you build up a tolerance to these effects until they become unnoticeable. Tolerance means that it takes more nicotine to get the same effect that we used to get from fewer cigarettes.
Routine smoking causes our bodies to adapt to having a certain level of nicotine; without realizing it, we regulate the number of cigarettes we smoke in order to maintain our bodies’ familiarized nicotine level. Our bodies’ tolerance to the unpleasant effects of nicotine allows us to focus on the pleasurable effects nicotine delivers. What most don’t realize, is that the pleasurable effects experienced from smoking, is the body’s reaction to the nicotine, which disrupts the body’s natural balance.
After the habit of smoking is established, we feel as though we need to smoke to feel “normal”, like our daily tasks cannot be completed until we’ve had our smoke. We begin to connect our smoking routines with many of our daily and social activities, creating triggers, making it hard to do those activities without smoking. An example is associating a cigarette with a cup of coffee or talking on the phone. We usually aren’t aware of the psychological effects of smoking. The triggers, the feelings of relaxation, stress reduction, focus etc. become automatic. This is defined as psychological dependence.
• You can't stop smoking:- You've made one or more serious, but unsuccessful, attempts to stop. • You have withdrawal symptoms when you try to stop:- Your attempts at stopping have caused physical and mood-related symptoms, such as strong cravings, anxiety, irritability, restlessness, difficulty concentrating, depressed mood, frustration, anger, increased hunger, insomnia, constipation or diarrhea. • You keep smoking despite health problems:- Even though you've developed health problems with your lungs or your heart, you haven't been able to stop. • You give up social activities:- You may stop going to smoke-free restaurants or stop socializing with family or friends because you can't smoke in these situations.
Personality disorders are deeply ingrained, rigid ways of thinking and behaving that result in impaired relationships with others and often cause distress for the individual who experiences them. Mental health professionals formally recognize 10 disorders that fall into three clusters, although there is known to be much overlap between the disorders, each of which exists on a spectrum:
Cluster A — Odd or eccentric disorders, including paranoid personality disorder, as well as schizoid and schizotypal personalities.
Cluster B — Dramatic or erratic disorders, including narcissistic personality disorder, histrionic personality disorder, and borderline personality disorder.
Cluster C — Anxious or fearful disorders, including avoidant personality disorder, dependent personality disorder, and obsessive-compulsive personality disorder.
The first signs of a personality disorder usually appear in late adolescence or early adulthood, though in hindsight, feature of the disorder can be identified in childhood behaviour, even though children are not formally diagnosed with these disorders. Although the disorders grouped within each cluster have similar symptoms and traits, one person may not have the exact same symptoms as another person with the same disorder, nor to the same degree. People with one personality disorder commonly have symptoms of at least one additional disorder, so it is important not to attempt a diagnosis if one is not a mental health professional, nor should one confront a person by asking whether the individual believes he or she has a disorder. People are usually unaware of their differences because they perceive their own distorted thought processes, emotional responses, and behaviours as normal.
Personality is the combination of thoughts, emotions and behaviours that makes you unique. It's the way you view, understand and relate to the outside world, as well as how you see yourself. Personality forms during childhood, shaped through an interaction of:
• Your genes. Certain personality traits may be passed on to you by your parents through inherited genes. These traits are sometimes called your temperament.
• Your environment. This involves the surroundings you grew up in, events that occurred, and relationships with family members and others.
• Family history of personality disorders or other mental illness
• Abusive, unstable or chaotic family life during childhood
• Being diagnosed with childhood conduct disorder
• Variations in brain chemistry and structure
Types of personality disorders are grouped into three clusters, based on similar characteristics and symptoms.
Cluster A personality disorders
Paranoid personality disorder
• Pervasive distrust and suspicion of others and their motives
• Unjustified belief that others are trying to harm or deceive you
• Unjustified suspicion of the loyalty or trustworthiness of others
• Hesitancy to confide in others due to unreasonable fear that others will use the information against you
• Perception of innocent remarks or nonthreatening situations as personal insults or attacks
• Angry or hostile reaction to perceived slights or insults
• Tendency to hold grudges
• Unjustified, recurrent suspicion that spouse or sexual partner is unfaithful
Schizoid personality disorder
• Lack of interest in social or personal relationships, preferring to be alone
• Limited range of emotional expression
• Inability to take pleasure in most activities
• Inability to pick up normal social cues
• Appearance of being cold or indifferent to others
• Little or no interest in having sex with another person
Schizotypal personality disorder
• Peculiar dress, thinking, beliefs, speech or behaviour
• Odd perceptual experiences, such as hearing a voice whisper your name
• Flat emotions or inappropriate emotional responses
• Social anxiety and a lack of or discomfort with close relationships
• Indifferent, inappropriate or suspicious response to others
• "Magical thinking" — believing you can influence people and events with your thoughts
• Belief that certain casual incidents or events have hidden messages meant only for you
Cluster B personality disorders
Antisocial personality disorder
• Disregard for others' needs or feelings
• Persistent lying, stealing, using aliases, conning others
• Recurring problems with the law
• Repeated violation of the rights of others
• Aggressive, often violent behaviour
• Disregard for the safety of self or others
• Impulsive behaviour
• Consistently irresponsible
• Lack of remorse for behaviour
Borderline personality disorder
• Impulsive and risky behaviour, such as having unsafe sex, gambling or binge eating
• Unstable or fragile self-image
• Unstable and intense relationships
• Up and down moods, often as a reaction to interpersonal stress
• Suicidal behaviour or threats of self-injury
• Intense fear of being alone or abandoned
• Ongoing feelings of emptiness
• Frequent, intense displays of anger
• Stress-related paranoia that comes and goes
Histrionic personality disorder
• Constantly seeking attention
• Excessively emotional, dramatic or sexually provocative to gain attention
• Speaks dramatically with strong opinions, but few facts or details to back them up
• Easily influenced by others
• Shallow, rapidly changing emotions
• Excessive concern with physical appearance
• Thinks relationships with others are closer than they really are Narcissistic personality disorder
• Belief that you're special and more important than others
• Fantasies about power, success and attractiveness
• Failure to recognize others' needs and feelings
• Exaggeration of achievements or talents
• Expectation of constant praise and admiration
• Unreasonable expectations of favours and advantages, often taking advantage of others
• Envy of others or belief that others envy you
Cluster C personality disorders
Avoidant personality disorder
• Too sensitive to criticism or rejection
• Feeling inadequate, inferior or unattractive
• Avoidance of work activities that require interpersonal contact
• Socially inhibited, timid and isolated, avoiding new activities or meeting strangers
• Extreme shyness in social situations and personal relationships
• Fear of disapproval, embarrassment or ridicule
Dependent personality disorder
• Excessive dependence on others and feeling the need to be taken care of
• Submissive or clingy behaviour toward others
• Fear of having to provide self-care or fend for yourself if left alone
• Lack of self-confidence, requiring excessive advice and reassurance from others to make even small decisions
• Difficulty starting or doing projects on your own due to lack of self-confidence
• Difficulty disagreeing with others, fearing disapproval
• Tolerance of poor or abusive treatment, even when other options are available
• Urgent need to start a new relationship when a close one has ended Obsessive-compulsive personality disorder
• Preoccupation with details, orderliness and rules
• Extreme perfectionism, resulting in dysfunction and distress when perfection is not achieved, such as feeling unable to finish a project because you don't meet your own strict standards
• Desire to be in control of people, tasks and situations, and inability to delegate tasks
• Neglect of friends and enjoyable activities because of excessive commitment to work or a project
• Inability to discard broken or worthless objects
• Rigid and stubborn
• Inflexible about morality, ethics or values
• Tight, miserly control over budgeting and spending money
One version of the ROBO1 gene greatly enhanced a core component of language learning.
The gene directs chemicals in brain cells that help infants store and translate speech sounds they hear into meaningful language.
The current study indicated that over half of the variance in children’s conversational language skills can be accounted for by genetic effects with no evidence of significant shared environmental influence. This finding casts an alternative lens on past studies that have attributed differences in children’s spontaneous language use to differences in environmental language exposure. In addition, multivariate results generally support the context-dependent construction of language knowledge, as suggested by the theory of activity and situated cognition, but also indicate some degree of overlap between language use in conversational and formalized assessment contexts.
The brain is malleable and can be changed through education and daily experiences, and thus so can cognitive functions, its formation and functioning are based on a genetic substrate that influences it to a moderate or high degree. Therefore, knowledge of the existence of genetic and epigenetic influences on the development of cognitive functions and the extent of their influence may empower education professionals to work toward more respectful and flexible practices. These would take into account the genetic influences, emphasizing the importance of educational practices as an environmental factor that contributes to the potential maximization of students’ skills.
In psychology, decision-making is regarded as the cognitive process resulting in the selection of a belief or a course of action among several alternative possibilities. Decision-making is the process of identifying and choosing alternatives based on the values, preferences and beliefs of the decision-maker. Every decision-making process produces a final choice, which may or may not prompt action. The way that you carry a conversation, respond to failure, form relationships with others, and generally behave is in part related to your genetics - but your world and life