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(F) Polycystic Ovary Syndrome (PCOS) Risk

PCOS is a problem with hormones that affects women during their childbearing years (ages 15 to 44). Between 2.2 to 26.7 percent of women in this age group have PCOS.
PCOS affects a woman’s ovaries, the reproductive organs that produce estrogens and progesterone — hormones that regulate the menstrual cycle. The ovaries also produce a small amount of male hormones called androgens.
PCOS is a “syndrome,” or group of symptoms that affects the ovaries and ovulation. Its three main features are:
1. Cysts in the ovaries
2. High levels of male hormones
3. Irregular or skipped periods
1. Genes
2. Insulin resistance
3. Inflammation
The most common PCOS symptoms are:
1. Irregular periods: A lack of ovulation prevents the uterine lining from shedding every month. Some women with PCOS get fewer than eight periods a year.
2. Heavy bleeding: The uterine lining builds up for a longer period of time, so the periods you do get can be heavier than normal.
3. Hair growth: More than 70 percent of women with this condition grow hair on their face and body — including on their back, belly, and chest. Excess hair growth is called hirsutism.
4. Acne: Male hormones can make the skin oilier than usual and cause breakouts on areas like the face, chest, and upper back.
5. Weight gain: Up to 80 percent of women with PCOS are overweight or obese. 6. Male-pattern baldness. Hair on the scalp gets thinner and fall out.
7. Darkening of the skin: Dark patches of skin can form in body creases like those on the neck, in the groin, and under the breasts.
8. Headaches: Hormone changes can trigger headaches in some women.
1. Infertility 2. Metabolic syndrome:Up to 80 percent of women with PCOS are overweight or obese (13Trusted Source). Both obesity and PCOS increase your risk for high blood sugar, high blood pressure, low HDL (“good”) cholesterol, and high LDL (“bad”) cholesterol. Together, these factors are called metabolic syndrome, and they increase the risk for heart disease, diabetes, and stroke. 3. Sleep apnea:This condition causes repeated pauses in breathing during the night, which interrupt sleep. 4. Endometrial cancer:During ovulation, the uterine lining sheds. If you don’t ovulate every month, the lining can build up. 5. Depression:Both hormonal changes and symptoms like unwanted hair growth can negatively affect your emotions. Many with PCOS end up experiencing depression and anxiety.


(F) Pregnancy Loss and Abnormal Reproductive Function Risk in Females

Pregnancy loss, also referred to as miscarriage or spontaneous abortion, is generally defined as a nonviable intrauterine pregnancy up to 20 weeks gestation. Early pregnancy loss, which occurs in the first trimester, is the most common type. The nonspecific symptoms of vaginal bleeding and uterine cramping associated with pregnancy loss can occur in normal, ectopic, and molar pregnancies, which can be a source of frustration for patients and clinical confusion for care providers.
Recurrent pregnancy loss is classically defined as the occurrence of three or more consecutive pregnancy loss however, the American Society of Reproductive Medicine (ASRM) has recently redefined recurrent pregnancy loss as two or more pregnancy losses. A pregnancy loss is defined as a clinically-recognized pregnancy involuntarily ending before 20 weeks. A clinically-recognized pregnancy means that the pregnancy has been visualized on an ultrasound or that pregnancy tissue was identified after a pregnancy loss. The relationship between miscarriage and fertility is complex. Infertile women undergoing assisted reproduction are at a greater risk of having a miscarriage especially at an advanced age compared with women conceiving naturally.
Risk factors
Common risk factors include increased:
1. Maternal age
2. Prior pregnancy loss
3. Obesity
4. Smoking
5. Diabetes
6. Thyroid disease
7. Inherited thrombophilias
8. Medication and substance use
9. Environmental factors and exposures
10. Race and ethnicity
11. Pregnancy with intrauterine device (IUD) in place
12. Alcohol
13. Pre-existing medical conditions
14. Anatomical abnormalities of the reproductive system.


(F) Risk of Spot Baldness in Females (Alopecia Areata)

Alopecia areata is a condition that causes hair to fall out in small patches, which can be unnoticeable. These patches may connect, however, and then become noticeable. The condition develops when the immune system attacks the hair follicles, resulting in hair loss.
Sudden hair loss may occur on the scalp, and in some cases the eyebrows, eyelashes, and face, as well as other parts of the body. It can also develop slowly and recur after years between instances.
The condition can result in total hair loss, called Alopecia Universalis, and it can prevent hair from growing back. When hair does grow back, it’s possible for the hair to fall out again. The extent of hair loss and re-growth varies from person to person.
There’s currently no cure for alopecia areata. However, there are treatments that may help hair grow back more quickly and that can prevent future hair loss, as well as unique ways to cover up the hair loss. Resources are also available to help people cope with stress related to hair loss.


Abnormal Reproductive Function Risk in Male

Up to 15 percent of couples are infertile. This means they aren't able to conceive a child, even though they've had frequent, unprotected sexual intercourse for a year or longer. In over a third of these couples, male infertility plays a role.
Male infertility is due to low sperm production, abnormal sperm function or blockages that prevent the delivery of sperm. Illnesses, injuries, chronic health problems, lifestyle choices and other factors can play a role in causing male infertility.
Not being able to conceive a child can be stressful and frustrating, but a number of male infertility treatments are available.
The main sign of male infertility is the inability to conceive a child. There may be no other obvious signs or symptoms. In some cases, however, an underlying problem such as an inherited disorder, a hormonal imbalance, dilated veins around the testicle or a condition that blocks the passage of sperm
Causes signs and symptoms.
1. Problems with sexual function — for example, difficulty with ejaculation or small volumes of fluid ejaculated, reduced sexual desire, or difficulty maintaining an erection (erectile dysfunction)
2. Pain, swelling or a lump in the testicle area
3. Recurrent respiratory infections
4. Inability to smell
5. Abnormal breast growth (gynecomastia)
6. Decreased facial or body hair or other signs of a chromosomal or hormonal abnormality
7. A lower than normal sperm count (fewer than 15 million sperm per milliliter of semen or a total sperm count of less than 39 million per ejaculate)
Risk factors
Risk factors linked to male infertility include:
1. Smoking tobacco
2. Using alcohol
3. Using certain illicit drugs
4. Being overweight
5. Being severely depressed or stressed
6. Having certain past or present infections
7. Being exposed to toxins
8. Overheating the testicles
9. Having experienced trauma to the testicles
10. Having a prior vasectomy or major abdominal or pelvic surgery
11. Having a history of undescended testicles
12. Being born with a fertility disorder or having a blood relative with a fertility
13. Having certain medical conditions, including tumours and chronic illnesses, such as sickle cell disease
14. Taking certain medications or undergoing medical treatments, such as surgery or radiation used for treating cancer


Prostate Cancer Risk

Prostate cancer is cancer that occurs in the prostate — a small walnut-shaped gland in men that produces the seminal fluid that nourishes and transports sperm. Cancer is when abnormal cells start to divide and grow in an uncontrolled way. The cells can grow into surrounding tissues or organs, and may spread to other areas of the body.
Prostate cancer may cause no signs or symptoms in its early stages.
Prostate cancer that's more advanced may cause signs and symptoms such as:
1. Trouble urinating
2. Decreased force in the stream of urine
3. Blood in semen
4. Discomfort in the pelvic area
5. Bone pain
6. Erectile dysfunction
Doctors know that prostate cancer begins when some cells in your prostate become abnormal. Mutations in the abnormal cells' DNA cause the cells to grow and divide more rapidly than normal cells do. The abnormal cells continue living, when other cells would die. The accumulating abnormal cells form a tumour that can grow to invade nearby tissue. Some abnormal cells can also break off and spread (metastasize) to other parts of the body. Risk factors:
Factors that can increase your risk of prostate cancer include:
1. Age: Your risk of prostate cancer increases as you age.
2. Race:For reasons not yet determined, black men carry a greater risk of prostate cancer than do men of other races. In black men, prostate cancer is also more likely to be aggressive or advanced.
3. Family history: If men in your family have had prostate cancer, your risk may be increased. Also, if you have a family history of genes that increase the risk of breast cancer (BRCA1 or BRCA2) or a very strong family history of breast cancer, your risk of prostate cancer may be higher.
4. Obesity: Obese men diagnosed with prostate cancer may be more likely to have advanced disease that's more difficult to treat.


Risk of Spot Baldness in Males (Alopecia Areata)

Alopecia areata is a form of alopecia (hair loss). It’s a non-life-threatening disease of your immune system that affects the hair on your scalp. With this condition, your body mistakenly views your hair follicles as an enemy. Your body attacks the hair follicles. This causes some or all of your hair to fall out. It usually begins with the hair on your head.
There are three severe forms of alopecia, including:
1. Areata (patchy hair loss on your head).
2. Totalis (complete hair loss on your head).
3. Universalis (the loss of all body hair).
Alopecia is not contagious. It occurs in men, women, and children of all ages. However, it is more common in children and adults in their early 20s.
1. The main symptom of alopecia areata is hair loss that occurs in small, round patches on your head. This leaves smooth, peach-coloured areas of scalp exposed. A mild case of alopecia areata starts with one to two coin-size hairless patches.
2. Alopecia areata can grow into another form of alopecia.
3. In its worst form, alopecia universalis causes you to lose all body hair. This includes eyebrows, eyelashes, arms, legs, underarms, pubic, and chest and back hair for men.
4. Rarely, people who have alopecia may feel burning or itching in the areas where they once had hair.
5. Some people with alopecia areata see changes in their fingernails and toenails. Nails can have tiny dents (pitting), have white spots or lines, and be rough.