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Alzheimer's disease is a type of dementia that causes problems with memory, thinking and behaviour. Symptoms usually develop slowly and get worse over time, becoming severe enough to interfere with daily tasks. Alzheimer's disease accounts for 60 percent to 80 percent of dementia cases.
Alzheimer's is not a normal part of aging. The greatest known risk factor is increasing age, and the majority of people with Alzheimer's are 65 and older. But Alzheimer's is not just a disease of old age. This rare form of Alzheimer's disease usually occurs between the ages of 30 and 60, and individuals with a family history of FAD have a 50 percent chance of developing dementia. Mutations in three genes have been identified in families with early-onset AD: presenilin-1 (PSEN1), presenilin-2 (PSEN2) and amyloidal precursor protein (APP). Common variations in another gene, apolipoprotein E (APOE), confer a major risk to Alzheimer’s disease in populations worldwide, but APOE risk variants are not sufficient to cause this hereditary neurological disorder. Symptoms :
Memory loss is the key symptom of Alzheimer's disease. An early sign of the disease is usually difficulty remembering recent events or conversations. As the disease progresses, memory impairments worsen and other symptoms develop. At first, a person with Alzheimer's disease may be aware of having difficulty with remembering things and organizing thoughts. A family member or friend may be more likely to notice how the symptoms worsen. Brain changes associated with Alzheimer's disease lead to growing trouble with memory. Memory
Everyone has occasional memory lapses. It's normal to lose track of where you put your keys or forget the name of an acquaintance. But the memory loss associated with Alzheimer's disease persists and worsens, affecting the ability to function at work or at home. People with Alzheimer's may:
1. Repeat statements and questions over and over
2. Forget conversations, appointments or events, and not remember them later
3. Routinely misplace possessions, often putting them in illogical locations
4. Get lost in familiar places
5. Eventually forget the names of family members and everyday objects
6. Have trouble finding the right words to identify objects, express thoughts or take part in conversations
Thinking and reasoning
Alzheimer's disease causes difficulty concentrating and thinking, especially about abstract concepts such as numbers. Multitasking is especially difficult, and it may be challenging to manage finances, balance check books and pay bills on time. These difficulties may progress to an inability to recognize and deal with numbers. Making judgments and decisions
The ability to make reasonable decisions and judgments in everyday situations will decline. For example, a person may make poor or uncharacteristic choices in social interactions or wear clothes that are inappropriate for the weather. It may be more difficult to respond effectively to everyday problems, such as food burning on the stove or unexpected driving situations. Planning and performing familiar tasks
Once-routine activities that require sequential steps, such as planning and cooking a meal or playing a favourite game, become a struggle as the disease progresses. Eventually, people with advanced Alzheimer's may forget how to perform basic tasks such as dressing and bathing. Changes in personality and behaviour
Brain changes that occur in Alzheimer's disease can affect moods and behaviours. Problems may include the following:
3. Social withdrawal
4. Mood swings
5. Distrust in others
6. Irritability and aggressiveness
7. Changes in sleeping habits
9. Loss of inhibition
10. Delusions, such as believing something has been stolen
PD is characterized by slowness of movement, tremors, rigidity and gait instability resulting from a depletion of a neurotransmitter called dopamine. Parkinson's disease is a neurodegenerative disease that primarily affects the part of the brain responsible for normal movement. People with the disease have a deficiency of dopamine, a brain chemical that helps control movement.
In Parkinson's, nerve cells in the substantia nigra, an area of the brain that produces dopamine, become impaired or die off. This results in the loss of dopamine-producing nerve cells in the brain and leads to symptoms such as tremors, slowed movements and muscle stiffness.
1. Tremor:A tremor, or shaking, usually begins in a limb, often your hand or fingers. You may a rub your thumb and forefinger back-and-forth, known as a pill-rolling tremor. Your hand may tremor when it's at rest.
2. Slowed movement (bradykinesia):Over time, Parkinson's disease may slow your movement, making simple tasks difficult and time-consuming. Your steps may become shorter when you walk. It may be difficult to get out of a chair. You may drag your feet as you try to walk.
3. Rigid muscles:Muscle stiffness may occur in any part of your body. The stiff muscles can be painful and limit your range of motion.
4. Impaired posture and balance:Your posture may become stooped, or you may have balance problems as a result of Parkinson's disease.
5. Loss of automatic movements:You may have a decreased ability to perform unconscious movements, including blinking, smiling or swinging your arms when you walk.
6. Speech changes:You may speak softly, quickly, slur or hesitate before talking. Your speech may be more of a monotone rather than with the usual inflections.
7. Writing changes:It may become hard to write, and your writing may appear small.
Causes and risk factors:
1. Heredity:Some genetic mutations may contribute to the development of Parkinson's and can slightly increase a person's risk. But most cases of the disease are not caused by inheriting genes linked to it. Only about 10 percent of people with Parkinson's are genetically predisposed to the condition.
2. Exposure to toxins:Studies have shown that environmental factors — such as exposure to pesticides, herbicides (like Agent Orange) and drinking well water — may be tied to an increased risk of Parkinson's.
3. Repeated head injuries:When these injuries trigger a loss of consciousness, they have been linked with an increased risk of Parkinson's.
Marfan syndrome is a genetic or inherited disorder that affects connective tissue — the fibres that support and anchor your organs and other structures in your body. Marfan syndrome most commonly affects the heart, eyes, blood vessels and skeleton. People with Marfan syndrome are usually tall and thin with disproportionately long arms, legs, fingers and toes. The damage caused by Marfan syndrome can be mild or severe. If your aorta — the large blood vessel that carries blood from your heart to the rest of your body — is affected, the condition can become life-threatening.
Marfan syndrome may found in people with:
1. Tall and slender build
2. Disproportionately long arms, legs and fingers
3. A breastbone that protrudes outward or dips inward
4. A high, arched palate and crowded teeth
5. Heart murmurs
6. Extreme nearsightedness
7. An abnormally curved spine
8. Flat feet
Schizophrenia is a brain disorder classified as a psychosis, which means that it affects a person's thinking, sense of self, and perceptions. The disorder typically becomes evident during late adolescence or early adulthood.
Signs and symptoms of schizophrenia include:
1. False perceptions called hallucinations
2. Auditory hallucinations of voices are the most common hallucinations in schizophrenia, but affected individuals can also experience hallucinations of visions, smells, or touch (tactile) sensations. Strongly held false beliefs (delusions) are also characteristic of schizophrenia.
3. People with schizophrenia often have decreased ability to function at school, at work, and in social settings.
4. Disordered thinking and concentration, inappropriate emotional responses, erratic speech and behaviour, and difficulty with personal hygiene and everyday tasks can also occur
5. People with schizophrenia may have diminished facial expression and animation (flat affect), and in some cases become unresponsive (catatonic).
6. Certain movement problems such as tremors, facial tics, rigidity, and unusually slow movement (bradykinesia) or an inability to move (akinesia) are common in people with schizophrenia
7. Psychotic disorders such as schizophrenia are different from mood disorders, including depression and bipolar disorder, which primarily affect emotions.
Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a broad term used to describe a group of neurodevelopment disorders. This disorder is characterized by problems with communication and social interaction. People with ASD often demonstrate restricted, repetitive, and stereotyped interests or patterns of behaviour.
ASD is found in individuals around the world, regardless of race, culture, or economic background. According to the Centres for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) Trusted Source, autism does occur more often in boys than in girls, with a 4 to 1 male-to-female ratio.
Autism symptoms typically become clearly evident during early childhood, between 12 and 24 months of age. However, symptoms may also appear earlier or later.
Early symptoms may include a marked delay in language or social development.
The DSM-5 divides symptoms of autism into two categories: problems with communication and social interaction, and restricted or repetitive patterns of behaviour or activities. Problems with communication and social interaction include:
1. Issues with communication, including difficulties sharing emotions, sharing interests, or maintaining a back-and-forth conversation
2. Issues with nonverbal communication, such as trouble maintaining eye contact or reading body language
3. Difficulties developing and maintaining relationships
Restricted or repetitive patterns of behaviour or activities include:
1. Repetitive movements, motions, or speech patterns
2. Rigid adherence to specific routines or behaviours
3. An increase or decrease in sensitivity to specific sensory information from their surroundings, such as a negative reaction to a specific sound
4. Fixated interests or preoccupations
1. Individuals are evaluated within each category and the severity of their symptoms is noted.
2. In order to receive an ASD diagnosis, a person must display all three symptoms in the first category and at least two symptoms in the second category.
Some of the suspected risk factors for autism include:
1. Having an immediate family member with autism
2. Genetic mutations
3. Fragile X syndrome and other genetic disorders
4. Being born to older parents
5. Low birth weight
6. Metabolic imbalances
7. Exposure to heavy metals and environmental toxins
8. A history of viral infections
9. Fatal exposure to the medications valproic acid (Depakene) or thalidomide (Thalomid)
Migraine with aura (also called classic migraine) is a recurring headache that strikes after or at the same time as sensory disturbances called aura. These disturbances can include flashes of light, blind spots and other vision changes or tingling in your hand or face.
1. Migraine aura symptoms include temporary visual or other disturbances that usually strike before other migraine symptoms — such as intense head pain, nausea, and sensitivity to light and sound.
2. Migraine aura usually occurs within an hour before head pain begins and generally lasts less than 60 minutes. Sometimes migraine aura occurs with little or no headache, especially in people age 50 and older.
3. Visual signs and symptoms
4. Most people who have migraine with aura develop temporary visual signs and symptoms which tend to start in the centre of the field of vision and spread outward.
These might include:
1. Blind spots (scotomas), which are sometimes outlined by simple geometric designs
2. Zigzag lines that gradually float across your field of vision
3. Shimmering spots or stars
4. Changes in vision or vision loss
5. Flashes of light
6. Numbness, typically felt as tingling in one hand or on one side of your face that may spread slowly along a limb
7. Speech or language difficulty
8. Muscle weakness
ADHD is a chronic behavioural disorder of childhood onset (by age 7). ADHD affects children, adolescents, and adults. It is characterized by behaviour that is hyperactive, impulsive, or inattentive. There are several different types of ADHD. Some children are primarily inattentive and do not display signs of hyperactivity. Others however, are hyperactive and/or impulsive. The rest exhibit a mixture of these symptoms.
ADHD tends to run in families and, in most cases, it's thought the genes you inherit from your parents are a significant factor in developing the condition. Research shows that parents and siblings of a child with ADHD are more likely to have ADHD themselves. However, the way ADHD is inherited is likely to be complex and is not to be related to a single genetic fault.
Risk factors include:
1. Gender—Boys are more frequently diagnosed with ADHD than girls.
2. Heredity—ADHD and similar disorders tend to run in families, suggesting there may be a genetic component. People with a parent or a sibling, especially an identical twin, with ADHD are at increased risk of developing the condition.
3. Age—Symptoms typically appear in young children aged 3-6 years old.
4. Maternal factors, such as:
5. Smoking during pregnancy
6. Preterm labour
7. Mental health conditions
8. Exposure to certain environmental toxins, such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs)
9. High blood pressure
10. Childhood exposures to environmental toxins, such as lead, which is found in pipes or paint in older buildings
11. Premature birth
12. Overall parental health—A child may be at a higher risk of ADHD if their parent has certain conditions, such as alcohol use disorder or conversion disorder
Other factors that may increase the risk of ADHD include:
1. Head injury at a young age
2. Being born with a serious heart condition
3. Having Turner syndrome (a genetic condition)
4. Being exposed to certain pesticides
5. Spending over 2 hours a day watching TV or playing video games when young
3. Conduct disorder
4. Substance abuse
5. Learning disorders
6. Tourette Syndrome
7. Bipolar disorder
10. Encopresis —leaking stool
11. Enuresis —inability to control urination
12. Cigarette use