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Obesity is a complex disease involving an excessive amount of body fat. Obesity isn't just a cosmetic concern. It is a medical problem that increases your risk of other diseases and health problems, such as heart disease, diabetes, high blood pressure and certain cancers.
There are many reasons why some people have difficulty avoiding obesity. Usually, obesity results from a combination of inherited factors, combined with the environment and personal diet and exercise choices. The good news is that even modest weight loss can improve or prevent the health problems associated with obesity. Dietary changes, increased physical activity and behavior changes can help you lose weight. Prescription medications and weight-loss procedures are additional options for treating obesity.
People with obesity are more likely to develop a number of potentially serious health problems, including:
1. Heart disease and strokes: Obesity makes you more likely to have high blood pressure and abnormal cholesterol levels, which are risk factors for heart disease and strokes.
2. Type 2 diabetes: Obesity can affect the way your body uses insulin to control blood sugar levels. This raises your risk of insulin resistance and diabetes.
3. Certain cancers: Obesity may increase your risk of cancer of the uterus, cervix, endometrium, ovary, breast, colon, rectum, esophagus, liver, gallbladder, pancreas, kidney and prostate.
4. Digestive problems: Obesity increases the likelihood that you'll develop heartburn, gallbladder disease and liver problems.
5. Gynecological and sexual problems: Obesity may cause infertility and irregular periods in women. Obesity also can cause erectile dysfunction in men.
6. Sleep apnea: People with obesity are more likely to have sleep apnea, a potentially serious disorder in which breathing repeatedly stops and starts during sleep.
7. Osteoarthritis: Obesity increases the stress placed on weight-bearing joints, in addition to promoting inflammation within the body. These factors may lead to complications such as osteoarthritis.
Common specific causes of obesity include:
1. eating a poor diet of foods high in fats and calories
2. having a sedentary (inactive) lifestyle
3. not sleeping enough, which can lead to hormonal changes that make you feel hungrier and crave certain high-calorie foods
4. genetics, which can affect how your body processes food into energy and how fat is stored
5. growing older, which can lead to less muscle mass and a slower metabolic rate, making it easier to gain weight
6. pregnancy (weight gained during pregnancy can be difficult to lose and may eventually lead to obesity)
In the postgenome era, empowering genotyping and sequencing technologies enables assessment of individual’s genomic feature in unprecedented efficiency and detail. This leads to an expectation of switch from traditional, one-size-fits-all diet intervention toward personalized manner, by referring to ‘individuality’ of human genome. Genetic test, which aims to inform the customers of their lifetime risk of diseases and how they may respond to specific diets, has been already commercially available.
Obesity is one of the biggest health problems in the world. It’s associated with several related conditions, collectively known as metabolic syndrome. These include high blood pressure, elevated blood sugar and a poor blood lipid profile.
People with metabolic syndrome are at a much higher risk of heart disease and type 2 diabetes, compared to those whose weight is in a normal range.
Over the past decades, much research has focused on the causes of obesity and how it could be prevented or treated.
Here are 10 factors that are leading causes of weight gain, obesity and metabolic disease, many of which have nothing to do with willpower.
Obesity has a strong genetic component. Children of obese parents are much more likely to become obese than children of lean parents.
That doesn’t mean that obesity is completely predetermined. What you eat can have a major effect on which genes are expressed and which are not.
Non-industrialized societies rapidly become obese when they start eating a typical Western diet. Their genes didn't change, but the environment and the signals they sent to their genes did.
1. Put simply, genetic components do affect your susceptibility to gaining weight. Studies on identical twins demonstrate this very well
2. Engineered Junk Foods
3. Food Addiction
4. Aggressive Marketing
6. Certain Medications
7. Leptin Resistance
8. Food Availability
The feeling of fullness that persists after eating, potentially suppressing further energy intake until hunger returns. Satiation is the process that leads to the termination of eating, which may be accompanied by a feeling of satisfaction Lack of satiety characterizes many monogenic obesity disorders, and lower satiety responsiveness is linked with weight gain in population samples.
Adiponectin is a protein that is secreted by cells within the adipose tissue. However, researchers have found that those who are obese and carry a lot of visceral fat in particular, have a lower concentration of adiponectin in their blood.
It’s thought that adiponectin has an anti-inflammatory effect which helps to reduce chronic inflammation. Insulin and type 2 diabetes along with other conditions are linked to chronic inflammation – the more adiponectin you have, the less inflammation and the less likely you are to develop these inflammatory conditions.
Losing weight increases the levels of adiponectin in the blood, and therefore reduces the health risks associated with obesity.
In addition, low levels of adiponectin are seen in those with high levels of bad cholesterol and low levels of good cholesterol.
Studies have shown that adiponectin also helps to manage weight by controlling the levels of glucose within the body and by breaking down fatty acids.
Therefore, activating adiponectin and increasing the levels in the blood can help with the management of weight and weight-related disorders. A meta-analysis showed that women with PCOS have lower levels of adiponectin, independently of BMI . Because adiponectin has direct insulin-sensitising effects, decreased levels of adiponectin in PCOS women could, in addition to obesity, contribute to systemic insulin resistance and hyperinsulinaemia thereby declining fertility. Besides, a direct role of low levels of adiponectin on folliculogenesis is possible.
Ginger, as a supplement or an ingredient in food and drink, may protect against obesity and chronic disease, according to a new research review. While experts can’t yet recommend a specific dosage for preventive purposes, they say that consuming more of the pungent spice is smart for several reasons.
There were no effects of ginger on glucose, insulin, lipids, or inflammatory markers. The results, showing enhanced thermogenesis and reduced feelings of hunger with ginger consumption, suggest a potential role of ginger in weight management.
Ginger has also been shown to inhibit oxidative stress (a form of cellular aging), to have anti-inflammatory properties and to lower cholesterol and blood pressure. It may even reduce atherosclerosis, the buildup of dangerous fat in the arteries.
Ginger has been shown to significantly reduce body weight and systemic inflammation, lower cholesterol and blood sugar and protect against the harmful effects of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. Consuming ginger can enhance calorie burn and reduce feelings of hunger, and that it’s associated with weight loss in overweight adults. It’s also been linked to positive changes in cholesterol, blood sugar, blood pressure, inflammatory proteins and liver health.
Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) are fatty acids that contain more than one double bond in their backbone. This class includes many important compounds, such as essential fatty acids and those that give drying oils their characteristic property.
Body mass index (BMI) is a value derived from the mass (weight) and height of a person. The BMI is defined as the body mass divided by the square of the body height, and is universally expressed in units of kg/m2, resulting from mass in kilograms and height in metres.
The BMI is a convenient rule of thumb used to broadly categorize a person as underweight, normal weight, overweight, or obese based on tissue mass (muscle, fat, and bone) and height.
Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) have anti-inflammatory and as regulators of lipid metabolism. However, the epigenomic mechanisms involved in these processes are not known in depth. The aim of this review was to describe the scientific evidence supports that regular consumption of PUFA may reduce obesity and overweight by altering epigenetic marks.
As a result Exist a possible therapeutic effect of PUFAs on the prevention and development of obesity due to their ability to reversively modify the methylation of the promoters of genes associated with lipid metabolism and to modulate the activity of certain micro RNAs.
High-MUFA meal has presented beneficial effect on postprandial lipidemia response, but it is not yet completely clear whether this response to MUFA intake may be different in people with excess weight and/or other chronic diseases. In general, cardiovascular risk factors were reduced and lipid profiles improved after interventions with MUFA. In conclusion, recent studies have demonstrated that consuming MUFA has beneficial effects at short and long time by increasing/maintaining HDL-cholesterol concentrations and reducing levels of LDL cholesterol.
Monounsaturated fatty acids improve insulin resistance by influencing the composition of cell membranes, which at least partially reflects the composition of dietary fats.
The most common MUFA in daily nutrition is oleic acid, corresponding to ∼90% of all MUFAs provided in the diet. Oleic acids/MUFAs are associated with a number of beneficial health effects, mainly related to cardiovascular risk.
Fatty acid metabolism consists of catabolic processes that generate energy, and anabolic processes that create biologically important molecules (triglycerides, phospholipids, second messengers, local hormones and ketone bodies). Fatty acids are a family of molecules classified within the lipid macronutrient class. We describe your body genetically response positively or negatively While taking fatty acid in foods
Disorders: A broad classification for genetic disorders that result from an inability of the body to produce or utilize one enzyme that is required to oxidize fatty acids. The enzyme can be missing or improperly constructed, resulting in it not working. This leaves the body unable to produce energy within the liver and muscles from fatty acid sources.
Cause: Fatty-acid metabolism disorders result when both parents of the diagnosed subject are carriers of a defective gene. This is known as an Autosomal recessive disorder. Two parts of a recessive gene are required to activate the disease. If only one part of the gene is present then the individual is only a carrier and shows no symptoms of the disease. If both mutated genes are present, the individual will be symptomatic. Like most autosomal recessive disorders, when both parents are carriers, there is a 25% chance for each child to inherit the disease.
1. Extreme sleepiness
2. Behavior changes
3. Irritable mood
4. Poor appetite
10. Enlarged heart
11. Muscle weakness
12. Heart failure
Lipolysis of white adipose tissue triacylglycerol stores results in the liberation of glycerol and nonesterified fatty acids that are released into the vasculature for use by other organs as energy substrates. In response to changes in nutritional state, lipolysis rates are precisely regulated through hormonal and biochemical signals. These signals modulate the activity of lipolytic enzymes and accessory proteins, allowing for maximal responsiveness of adipose tissue to changes in energy requirements and availability. Alterations in lipolysis are frequently associated with obesity, including an increase in basal rates of lipolysis that may contribute to the development of insulin resistance, as well as an impaired responsiveness to stimulated lipolysis. A decreased lipolytic rate is observed both in the early years of life and the elderly in relation to the action of catecholamines and insulin. An increased basal lipolysis together with an enhanced lipolytic sensitivity to catecholamines take place during situations of negative energy balance such as fasting, starvation or semi-starvation, contributing to the increased mobilisation of NEFA from adipocytes and the subsequent fat mass loss when maintained over time. In humans the main elements controlling lipolysis are the activity of the autonomic nervous system and the endocrine influence derived from the release of insulin.
Obesity is characterized primarily by an excess of WAT and an enlargement in adipocyte size that results from increased TAG storage. Obesity has become a prevalent health problem due to its close association with a number of disorders, including type 2 diabetes, hypertension, and atherosclerosis . Here, we review adipocyte lipolysis and the major nutritional determinants controlling this process. Below mentioned figure provides an overview of the nutritional regulation of adipocyte lipolysis.